Injini yeJet: iyini, isebenza kanjani kanye nezinhlobo

motor ukusabela

Nakuba kule webhusayithi sigxile ezimotweni ezihamba phansi, njengezimoto nezithuthuthu, ngokuqinisekile abathandi bezimoto bazofisa ukwazi okwengeziwe ngalokhu. injini yendiza yendiza, nakuba ziye zasetshenziswa futhi izimoto zomhlaba ukwephula amarekhodi esivinini, noma kuma-prototypes ahlanyayo.

Injini yejethi, eyaziwa nangokuthi i-turbojet, iwuhlobo lwe injini evuthayo yangaphakathi esebenzisa umoya ocindezelwe nophethiloli ukwenza i-thrust futhi iqhube imoto. Kuwukusungulwa okuguquguqukayo okuguqule ezokuthutha zasemoyeni, okuvumela izindiza ngesivinini kanye nokuphakama okwakungacatshangwa ngaphambilini. Kulezi zimo, uphethiloli osetshenzisiwe awuwona udizili noma uphethiloli, kodwa uphalafini usetshenziswa ngenxa yezakhiwo zawo.

Uphalafini, noma upharafini, unguphethiloli owuketshezi otholakala ku-petroleum osetshenziswa ngokuyinhloko ukuphehla izinjini zejethi. Ezinye izinto zokubasa ezivamile azisetshenziswa, njengoba uphalafini unezinzuzo ezifana nephuzu eliphezulu lokuthungela, ukuzinza kwawo okushisayo, okuqukethwe kwesibabule esincane, kanye nenani eliphakeme le-calorific, elivumela isivuno esikhulu.

izingxenye zenjini ye-jet

motor ukusabela

Un injini ye-jet iqukethe izingxenye ezithile ezibalulekile Okufanele ukwazi ngaphambi kokuqhubeka nokubona okwengeziwe ngalezi zinjini:

  • I-Entrada de aire: Umoya udonswa ngaphambili enjini ngokungenisa umoya.
  • Umcindezeli: Lo moya omunyiwe ucindezelwa i-compressor, equkethe uchungechunge lwama-propeller anama-blade aklanyelwe ukukhulisa umfutho wawo kanye nezinga lokushisa njengoba uhamba ubheke engxenyeni engemuva yenjini.
  • I-Cámara de combustión: Umoya ocindezelwe ufinyelela ekamelweni elivuthayo, elixutshwe nophethiloli ohlutshiwe. Le ngxube ibaswa yinhlansi, ikhiqize inani elikhulu lamagesi ashisayo ngokucindezela okukhulu.
  • I-Turbine: Amagesi omlilo oshisayo akhulisa ivolumu yawo ngochungechunge lwamabhomu aqondiswe kuma-blade ophephela. Amandla egesi ekhulayo azungeza i-turbine, anikeze amandla okusebenza kwenjini.
  • khipha i-nozzle: Amagesi e-exhaust aphuma ku-turbine akhishwa ngesivinini esikhulu ngokusebenzisa i-exhaust nozzle. Lokhu kuxoshwa kwamagesi kudala ukusunduza okuqhubezela indiza phambili.
Njengoba wazi, ngenxa yalokhu kuphokophela, iphiko lizokwenza umlingo walo we-aerodynamic ukwenza idivayisi indize, lapho ukwakheka kwayo kubangela ukugeleza komoya ngaphezulu ukuze kusheshiswe (ukunciphisa ukucindezela okuya phansi) futhi kunciphise isivinini sokugeleza komoya ngaphansi kwephiko, okwandisa ingcindezi. Lapho ingcindezi ngaphansi kwephiko idlula ingcindezi phezulu, indiza iyasuka...

Ngenxa yokuklama kwazo, lezi zinjini zejethi zinikeza izinzuzo ezithile, kuhlanganise nokuba nazo ukusunduza okukhulu okulingana nezinkulungwane zamahhashiUkwengeza, uma kubhekwa ukusebenza kwabo ngokuthatha umoya, basebenza ngaphandle kwenkinga ezindaweni eziphakeme ngaphandle kokuthinteka njenge-atmospheric noma i-turbo ones (ngezinga elincane). Futhi bavame ukuba nokwethembeka okukhulu nokuqina. Nokho, ziphinde zibe nezimo ezimbi, njengokuyinkimbinkimbi kwazo okukhulu, izindleko zazo eziphakeme, umsindo omkhulu eziwubangelayo, ukusetshenziswa kakhulu kukaphethiloli, kanye nesisi esingcolisa umoya.

Amandla ehhashi (HP) akusona isilinganiso esijwayelekile sokulinganisa amandla enjini yejethi. Esikhundleni salokho, amayunithi afana ne-thrust (akalwa ngama-Newtons noma amaphawundi wamandla) noma amandla e-shaft (akalwa ngama-kilowatts noma amandla ehhashi) asetshenziswa. Uma sikhuluma ngezinjini zejethi ezincane zezindiza ezilula noma amajethi amancane, kungakhiqizwa kufika ku-5000 HP, ezindizeni zokulwa zempi, njengezilwi, ngisho namandla alingana ne-100.000 HP angafinyelelwa. Izindiza zabagibeli bezentengiselwano noma ezithwala impahla zingasukela ku-10.000 kuye ku-50.000 HP.

Izinhlobo ze-jet engine

Ngokuqondene ne izinhlobo zenjini ye-jet, Sinakho:

  • I-Turbojet: uhlobo oluvame kakhulu lwenjini ye-jet, esetshenziswa kubagibeli nezindiza zezempi. Kule injini, umoya ocindezelweyo uxutshwa nophethiloli bese ushiswa ekamelweni elivuthayo. Amagesi ashisayo akhulisa umthamo wawo futhi akhishwa ngesivinini esikhulu ngokusebenzisa i-exhaust nozzle, akhiqize ukudonsa. Inikeza amandla amakhulu, ukulula nokuthembeka. Kodwa ukusetshenziswa kwayo kuphakeme, uma kubhekwa ukusebenza kahle kwayo okuphansi. Ezinye izibonelo zalezi zinjini i-Pratt & Whitney JT8D esetshenziswe ku-Boeing 737 noma i-General Electric F414 ye-F-18 Hornet fighter jet.
  • I-Turbofan: iwuhlobo lwe-turbojet esebenzisa ifeni ukukhiqiza ukugeleza komoya okwengeziwe enjinini. Omunye womoya ocindezelwe uqondiswe kufeni, ukhiqize ukugeleza komoya okunesivinini esiphansi esidlula enjinini. Amagesi avuthayo ahlanganayo nalokhu kugeleza komoya, okwandisa ukudonsa nokusebenza kahle. Isebenza kahle kakhulu kunangaphambili, nokusebenza okukhulu, kodwa futhi iyinkimbinkimbi futhi iyabiza. Izibonelo yi-CFM International CFM56 ye-Airbus A320, noma i-Rolls-Royce Trent 900 ye-Boeing 787.
  • I-Turboprop- Ihlanganisa injini yejethi ne-propeller ukuze ikhiqize i-thrust. Kulesi simo, ingxenye yomoya ocindezelweyo iqondiswe ku-turbine, oshayela i-propeller. Amagesi avuthayo ashisayo akhishwa ngombhobho wokukhipha umoya, okwenza umfutho owengeziwe. Isebenza kahle, futhi ilungele ukusuka isikhashana kanye nokufika (STOL) indiza. Nokho, banikeza ukusebenza okuphansi. Ezinye izimo i-Rolls-Royce AE2100 noma i-Pratt & Whitney PT6A ye-ATR 42 kanye ne-Bombardier Q400 ngokulandelana.
  • I-Turboramjet: uhlobo lwenjini eyi-hybrid jet ehlanganisa injini yejethi nenjini ye-ramjet. Ngesivinini esiphansi, injini isebenza njenge-turbojet evamile. Njengoba isivinini sikhuphuka, umoya ocindezelwe yi-compressor ushiswa ngokuyinhloko ngokungqubuzana nomoya ongenayo, uvutha uphethiloli ngaphandle kwesidingo segumbi elivuthayo. Inikeza ukusebenza kahle okukhulu ngesivinini esikhulu, futhi okuncane ngesivinini esiphansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iyinkimbinkimbi. Izibonelo i-Pratt & Whitney J58 ye-SR-71 Blackbird, noma i-General Electric J93 ye-Lockheed A-12, zombili izilwi.
  • I-Scramjet: Okokugcina, lolu uhlobo lwenjini yejethi ye-hypersonic esebenzisa amandla omlilo aphezulu ukuze ikhiqize i-thrust. Umoya ocindezelwe yi-compressor ushiselwa kumazinga okushisa aphezulu kakhulu ngokungqubuzana nomoya ongenisayo, uthungela uphethiloli ngaphandle kwesidingo segumbi elivuthayo noma izingxenye ezijikelezayo. Ivumela isivinini esikhulu nokulula, kodwa iyinkimbinkimbi futhi isathuthukiswa. Izibonelo i-Boeing Flight Vehicle 2 kanye ne-X-51 Waverider, zombili izindiza ze-hypersonic zokuhlola.

Yiziphi izindlela zesibhakabhaka ezishiywe yilezi zinjini? Ama-Chemtrails

chemtrails

I-Las I-Contrails, noma i-contrails, amafu amhlophe akha ngemuva kwezindiza ezindaweni eziphakeme.. Akhiwe ngamaconsi amanzi amancane noma amakristalu eqhwa akha lapho umhwamuko okhishwa izinjini zejethi ufinyela emoyeni obandayo, owomile womkhathi ongaphezulu. Ukwakheka kwabo kuncike ekushiseni okuzungezile, umswakama ohlobene, ukuphakama (phakathi kwamamitha angu-6000 12000 no-XNUMX XNUMX) kanye nohlobo lwenjini, yingakho ezinye izindiza zingalushiyi lolu hlobo lwemizila.

Uma ungumngane wozungu, kukhona nombono wokuthi "i-chemtrails", ezimangalela ukuthi zingama-chemtrails ashiywe ngenhloso ngezinhloso ezahlukene, njengokushintsha isimo sezulu, phakathi kokunye...


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Ikheli lakho le ngeke ishicilelwe. Ezidingekayo ibhalwe nge *

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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
  5. Isitoreji sedatha: Idatabase ebanjwe yi-Occentus Networks (EU)
  6. Amalungelo: Nganoma yisiphi isikhathi ungakhawulela, uthole futhi ususe imininingwane yakho.