Injini ye-Hydrogen: ukusebenza, izinhlobo, izithiyo kanye nezinzuzo

injini ye-hydrogen

El injini ye-hydrogen ihlala ingenye yokubheja kwekusasa lemboni yezimoto. Ukusebenza kwayo kuyinikeza uchungechunge lwezinzuzo ezikuvumela ukuthi uhlale untanta naphezu kokushiyeka kwakho. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, izinhlobo ezifana Toyota, BMW, Mazda, Hyundai futhi Ford baye benza izimali ezinkulu kulobu buchwepheshe.

Kulesi sihloko, sizobheka isebenza kanjani injini ye-hydrogen, ini izinhlobo zikhona futhi ziyini zazo okuhle nokubi okuyinhloko. Ngale ndlela, kungaqondwa ukuthi kungani izinkampani eziningana ziqhubeka nokusebenza kuyo, naphezu kokunwetshwa kwe- ibhethri izimoto zikagesi.

Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zezinjini ezisebenzisa i-hydrogen, izinjini zomlilo futhi i izinjini zokuguqula ama-fuel cell. Ake sibone ukuthi zisebenza kanjani nokuthi yiziphi izinzuzo nezinkinga ngamunye anazo.

Injini ye-hydrogen evuthayo yangaphakathi

injini yokushisa ye-hydrogen

lezi zinjini basebenzisa i-hydrogen njengophethiloli. Okusho ukuthi, bawushisa emakamelweni omlilo ukuze bakhiqize ukuqhuma (amandla e-kinetic nokushisa). Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, injini kaphethiloli ezivamile ingashintshwa ukuze ishise i-hydrogen ngendlela efanayo naleyo ehlelwe ngayo GLP o I-GNC.

Isebenza kanjani injini evuthayo ye-hydrogen?

Ukusebenza kwale njini kufana ncamashi nokwenjini kaphethiloli. I i-hydrogen isetshenziswa njengamafutha futhi i i-oxygen njenge-oxidant. Ukusabela kwamakhemikhali kuqalwa yinhlansi, engakhiqizwa yi-a amapulaki.

IHydrojeni ayinawo ama-athomu ekhabhoni, ngakho-ke ukusabela kunjalo ukuhlangana kwama-molecule amabili e-hydrogen ne-molecule eyodwa yomoya-mpilo, ukukhulula amandla namanzi. Kuvezwe ngesibalo samakhemikhali: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O.

I-BMW 750 hl enenjini ye-hydrogen evuthayo enethangi le-hydrogen eliwuketshezi

El umphumela yokusabela kwayo kwamakhemikhali kumane umusi wamanzi. Nokho, izinjini ezivuthayo ze-hydrogen ingase ikhiqize ukukhishwa okuthile etholakala ekusebenzeni kwayo. Ngokwesibonelo, amanani amancane we-NOx, ngomoya kanye nokushisa kwe amagumbi omlilo, noma ukungcola kukhiqizwa ngu shisa amafutha ukuthi cross the piston izindandatho.

Njengoba i i-hydrogen igesi, igcinwa ethangini ngomfutho we-bar engu-700. Okuphakathi kuka-350 no-280 izikhathi ezingaphezu kwezingcindezi ezivamile zamathayi emoto (phakathi kwe-2 ne-2,5 imigoqo). Nakuba kube nezimoto ezigcine i-hydrogen endaweni enguketshezi ezingeni lokushisa eliphansi kakhulu, njengoba uzobona ngezansi.

Izinjini ezivuthayo ze-Hydrogen zinikeza okuthakazelisayo izinzuzo phezu kwezinjini ezivuthayo ezivamile. Isibonelo Ngokweqile bangasebenza ngengxube ezondile kakhulu (Lambda isondele ku-2). Okusho ukuthi, bangasebenzisa uphethiloli omncane ukuze bazuze wonke umoya ongena futhi usebenze kahle kakhulu.

Izibonelo zenjini evuthayo ye-hydrogen

I-BMW 750 hl ishisa i-hydrogen enayo ethangini le-hydrogen eliwuketshezi

I-Los awu 750hl bayisibonelo esihle senjini ye-hydrogen, eyavela ngonyaka wezi-2000. Nakuba empeleni kwakuyinjini kaphethiloli yakwaBMW, eyajwayela ukushisa ne-hydrogen.

Nokho, kwaba nezithiyo eziningana: eyokuqala, ukuthi wagcina i-hydrogen ewuketshezi. Okwakudinga indawo yokugcina impahla ebiza kakhulu eyenziwe ngezinto ezivela embonini ye-aerospace ukuze igcine emazingeni okushisa angaphansi kuka -250ºC. Okuthile okwakungafinyelelwa kuphela izinsuku ezingu-12 noma ezingu-14, isikhathi lapho i-hydrogen yahwamuka kancane kancane futhi yadedelwa ngokuphephile emkhathini. I-drawback yesibili ukuthi, ngokusebenzisa i-hydrogen, yalahlekelwa amandla ayo amaningi nokusebenza kahle kwayo. I ngemuva iBMW Hydrogen 7 Ngo-2005, isivele ixazulule lezi zinkinga ngokwengxenye futhi yaletha i-hydrogen emigoqweni engu-700 yokucindezela, ngaphandle kwesidingo sokuyigcina ekushiseni okuphansi.

Esinye isibonelo esihle yilesi Injini ye-hydrogen ye-Aquarius. Injini kaphethiloli yezinto ezimbiwa phansi eyakhiwe inkampani yakwa-Israel, eyashintshwa ukuze isebenzise i-hydrogen. Inguqulo yokuqala esebenzayo yethulwa ngo-2014 futhi kamuva kwafika inguqulo elungisiwe nethuthukisiwe. Ngokusho kwabathuthukisi bayo, ingasebenza ngaphandle kokugcoba uwoyela futhi inesistimu yokushintshanisa igesi yokunciphisa ukukhishwa kwe-NOx.

Injini ye-hydrogen evuthayo ye-Aquarius

Ngaphezu kwalokho, le njini yomlilo ye-hydrogen i ilula kakhulu futhi inezingxenye ezimbalwa kakhulu, ngakho ukukhiqizwa kwayo bekungaba ishibhile. Ingasebenza njenge-extender yezimoto zikagesi noma njengejeneretha kagesi kugridi kagesi.

i-fuel cell hydrogen injini

Igama lakhe eligcwele ngu injini ye-hydrogen yokuguqula i-fuel cell. Naphezu kwegama elithi "fuel", abashisi i-hydrogen. Bayisebenzisela ukukhiqiza ugesi ngenqubo ephambene ne-electrolysis. Yingakho bephethe ibhethri, lapho ukusabela kwamakhemikhali kwenzeka khona.

Ukusebenza kwenjini ye-hydrogen fuel cell

Njengasenjinini evuthayo ye-hydrogen, i-hydrogen igcinwa ethangini ngokucindezela kwamabha angu-700. Kuphela esikhundleni sokuyinikeza injini, ifinyelela ku- i-fuel cell ene-anode eyodwa kanye ne-cathode eyodwa (njengebhethri).

I-Honda Clarity Fuel Cell enenjini ye-hydrogen fuel cell

Uma ukuyo, i-hydrogen (H2) idlula kulwelwesi, eyihlephula ibe ama-ion amabili e-hydrogen nama-electron amabili amahhala. Kuvezwe njengezibalo zamakhemikhali: I-H2 → 2H+ kanye ne-2e-. Lokhu kwenzeka ngoba ulwelwesi olushiwo luvalwe ngogesi futhi luvumela i-2H+ ukuthi idlule, kodwa aluwavumeli ama-electron ukuba adlule.

Lawa ma-electron adlula ku-anode aye ku-cathode. kusuka kubhethri ngesekhethi yangaphandle, ngaleyo ndlela kukhiqiza umsinga kagesi. Ama-ion e-hydrogen aphumayo ahlangana nomoya-mpilo ovela emoyeni ukuze akhe amanzi. Ivezwe njengefomula yamakhemikhali: H2 + 1/2 O2 → H2O

Ngenxa yalokhu, i-fuel cell hydrogen injini yebo i-zero emissions, njengoba kungekho ukukhiqizwa kwe-NOx noma amagesi avela kumafutha avuthayo, njengoba kunjalo ngokuvutha.

IHyundai Nexo ene-fuel cell hydrogen engine

La ulwelwesi esetshenziswa kulezi zinjini iyabiza ngoba yenziwe ngeplatinum. Nokho, kunemisebenzi yokuxazulula lezi zindleko eziphezulu. Isibonelo, e-Technical University yaseBerlin baye bahlakulela i-alloy yensimbi enganciphisa izindleko eziningi, uma ingafakwa ekukhiqizeni.

Izibonelo zezimoto ezisebenza nge-fuel cell hydrogen

Lolu hlobo lwenjini lukhethwe izinhlobo eziningi zezimoto. Ngokwesibonelo, Honda nge yayo I-Clarity Fuel Cell, noma iToyota ne Mirai neminye imisebenzi kwezokuthutha ezisindayo ezifana iloli elisebenza nge-hydrogen.

Kulezi kumele kwengezwe i IHyundai nexo, the IHopium Machina, iLand Rover vikela i-hydrogen, the I-BMW ne-Hydrogen OKULANDELAYO, the I-Mercedes GLC F-CELL kanye neloli lomkhiqizo ofanayo GenH2.

I-BMW i-Hydrogen NEXT ene-hydrogen fuel cell

Ukungalungi kwenjini ye-hydrogen

  • Ama-catalysts asetshenziswa ekuphenduleni kwamakhemikhali enjini ye-fuel cell hydrogen awa izinto ezibizayonjengeplatinamu. Okungenani kuze kube yilapho ithathelwa indawo eshibhile, njengale eshiwo ngaphambili evela e-Technical University yaseBerlin.
  • Ukuze uthole i-Hydrogen, kufanele yenziwe nge izinqubo ze-thermochemical zamafutha ezinsalela noma i-electrolysis yamanzi, okudinga izindleko zamandla. Ukugxekwa okukhulu kwezinjini ze-hydrogen, njengoba ugesi ungagcinwa ngokuqondile ebhethrini lemoto kagesi ukuze usetshenziswe.
  • Lapho i-hydrogen isitholiwe, kufanele yethulwe ngaphansi kwengcindezi kumaseli noma amathangi. Inqubo edinga izindleko ezengeziwe zamandla.
  • I-Las amaseli e-hydrogen wakhe kuyabiza ukukhiqiza, kudingeka zimelane kakhulu ukuze zimelane nezingcindezi eziphakeme okufanele zigcinwe i-hydrogen.

Izinzuzo ze-Hydrogen Engine

  • El isisindo samaseli e-hydrogen sincane kunaleyo yamabhethri emoto kagesi. Yingakho ukusetshenziswa kwayo kwezokuthutha ezisindayo kufundwa njengenye indlela yamaloli kagesi webhethri. Ukuze ukwazi ukuhlanganisa amabanga amade, isisindo salokhu sikhulu kakhulu.
  • Ukushaja kabusha i-hydrogen kuyashesha kunokushaja ibhethri lemoto kagesi namuhla.
  • Ngokungafani nemoto kagesi yebhethri, imoto ye-fuel cell hydrogen-powered ayidingi ibhethri elikhulu. Yingakho ke idinga i-lithium encane noma ezinye izinto ezingase zishodelwe. Injini evuthayo ye-hydrogen ayidingi ngokuqondile ibhethri ye-lithium noma amanye afana nawo.
  • Amaseli kaphethiloli ahlala impilo yemoto. Ngokungafani namabhethri kagesi, okuthi ngenxa yobukhulu bawo namandla abiza kakhulu ukushintshwa. Ibhethri elihambisana nenjini ye-hydrogen lincane ngakho ishibhile ukulishintsha.
  • Uma kuqhathaniswa ne-fossil fuel engine, izinjini ze-fuel cell hydrogen zisebenzisa injini kagesi, zinjalo kuthuleke ngokwedlulele.

Indlela i-hydrogen egcwala ngayo

Ukugcwalisa kabusha i-Mercedes GLC F-Cell nge-hydrogen

Izinjini ze-hydrogen zine-drawback yokuthi ithangi lazo noma i-fuel cell kumele ibe ne-hydrogen ngokucindezela okukhulu kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, i- amaphuzu wokuhlinzeka kumele futhi ihambisane nge-700 bar pressure ukuthi baphathe

Lokhu idinga ukwakhiwa kwengqalasizinda yokuhlinzeka ukuze ikwazi ukufaka uphethiloli kulolu hlobo lwemoto. Okusho ukuthi, inkinga efanayo ukuthi izimoto zikagesi zebhethri ezinazo. Noma kunjalo, ukusebenza kwe-refueling kuyashesha kakhulu kunalena yalezi, ngoba iyafana naleyo yezimoto ze-LPG noma ze-GLC.

ukuzimela kwemoto ye-hydrogen

Izimoto zamanje ezinenjini ye-hydrogen fuel cell zinamandla okuzibusa afana nalawo kaphethiloli. Ngokwesibonelo, iToyota Mirai imemezele u-650 km neseli ligcwele, i IHyundai Nexo 756 km futhi i BMW iX5 Hydrogen 700km.

Ukuzimela kwemoto yesimanje ye-hydrogen kuphezulu

abanye bathanda IHopium Machina imemezela ibanga elingu-1.000 km, nakuba kuyisibalo okufanele okwamanje siqinisekiswe uma senzeka. Kunoma yikuphi, ukuzimela akubalulekile njengebhethri likagesi njengoba ukugcwalisa i-refueling kushesha kakhulu. Okufanele ukucabangele inani lamaphuzu okufaka uphethiloli.

Ingabe imoto ye-hydrogen iphephile?

Amabhrendi asebenze iminyaka kulolu hlobo lwenjini ukwenza ngcono ukusebenza kahle, izindleko eziphansi futhi, kunjalo, uthole ukuthi babe tan umshuwalense njengamafutha ezinto ezimbiwa phansi.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, i amazinga okuphepha adingekayo e-Europe, USA nase-Japan, ziyisiqinisekiso sokuthi izimoto ezisebenza nge-hydrogen ziphephile. Ngaphandle kokuqhubeka, kwaToyota bazishaya isifuba ngokuthi ithangi leMirai alikwazi ukumelana nezinhlamvu.

Ingabe siyolubona usuku lufika lapho zonke izimoto zisebenza nge-hydrogen? Isikhathi sizosho. Okusobala ukuthi amabhrendi ayaqhubeka nokutshala imali nokuthi kunezinzuzo ezithile ezigcina iyinto ehlukile ekuthuthweni kwe-zero-emission.


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  1. Ubhekele imininingwane: Miguel Ángel Gatón
  2. Inhloso yedatha: Lawula Ugaxekile, ukuphathwa kwamazwana.
  3. Ukusemthethweni: Imvume yakho
  4. Ukuxhumana kwemininingwane: Imininingwane ngeke idluliselwe kubantu besithathu ngaphandle kwesibopho esisemthethweni.
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  1.   ujudith lopez reyes kusho

    Ngingenza kanjani ishadi lokugeleza lezinqubo zokusebenza zenjini ye-hydrogen?

  2.   Umqobi kusho

    ikhasi elithakazelisayo

  3.   Ricardo kusho

    Bengilokhu ngibuka izinjini ze-hydrogen izinsuku eziningi, kungani lolo shintsho? uma sinezinjini zokuvutha kwezinto ezimbiwa phansi. (uphethiloli), awusebenzi nge-hydrogen? Inkinga yonke idiphozithi, ukube bekufana namasilinda egesi (okuguquguqukayo) besingeke sibe nakho, ngombono wami, noma yibuphi ubunzima.
    Ngakolunye uhlangothi, amabhethri okugcina lapho ukuphila kwawo okuwusizo kuphela, lapho avuselelwa khona, lapho manje kuyibhokisi lezicathulo ezilula kanye nama-plug-in hybrids ngokuyisisekelo ayimoto yonke. Ngiyabonga